Indonesia

Off the west coast off indonesia, there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 9.2, which makes it the third largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph, and one of the dealiest natural disasters  to humanity in history.

The earthquake affected the following countries: Indonesia, Sri lanka, India, Thailand, Maldives, Malaysia, Madagascar, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa. The earthquake also caused the earth to vibrate by 1 centimetre, and caused one of the worlds deadliest types of natural disasters: a tsunami.

Summary

There was a boxing day tsunami that hit 14 countries, including Indonesia (the hardest hit country,) and affected 5 million people in total. In some villages, more than 70% of the villagers were killed. Also, the tsunami caused the sea floor to rise by several metres and triggered another wave of tsunami's, and waves up to 100ft high. The coordinates for the epicentre of the earthquake are: 3.316N and 95.854E.

Causes

The tsunami was caused by an earthquake with an epicentre off the west coast of Indonesia, and the earthquake lasted for 9 minutes (the longest time ever recorded.) The earthquake was caused by the Indian tectonic plate subducting from the Burma plate, causing 1,000 miles of plate to slip, the sea floor to rise and 30 cubic kilometres of water to be displaced, therefore causing the devastating tsunamis.

Social effects

There are many social effects, and some of these are: many people died in the tsunami and earthquake (250,000,) also many people were injured, displaced, or had their property damaged. Being displaced is when someone has to move away because of something that happened to their house, country or property, and having to move somewhere else. 1.7 million people were left homeless after the tsunami, and had to find other places to live, but they also had to find enough money to get another house. Also, half a million people were injured, and 40,000 more men were killed than women.

Economical effects

The economical effects are that lots of buildings were destroyed, so lots of expenses had to be paid out. $14 billion had to be paid out in humanitarian aid, $5 billion of that was spent on the damage in Indonesia, and the rest was spent on the other countries involved. Lots of buisnesses were damaged and had to be shut down, so most people had no job, and therefore no way of making money.

Environmental effects

In all of the regions affected, all of the nature there would have been ripped apart by the tsunami, and all of the animals habitats and homes would have been destroyed, also lots of the animals would have died and the ones that didn't die would have no way to get food, no family, and no places to hide from predators. Solid waste and debris were floating around the affected countries, making nearly impossible for some species to survive there Toxic fuels and raw materials were mixed with the debris, so that would also kill off other life forms, so any natural plant, tree or animal that did manage to survive would have to be specially adapted.

Aftershocks

There where many aftershocks that day that the earthquake caused, and lots of these reached up to 6.1 on the seismograph, which can still cause imenese damage to many of the population. Also, even 3 or 4 months later there were still large earthquakes that reached 6.6, that were thought to have been triggered by the large earthquake on boxing day.

Aftershocks are created when the main earthquake releases all of its energy, and passes some of it to a nearby rock; this then either creates stress where there was none before, or increases the stress that was already there between the cracks in the rock, and when the stress gets to much in that rock, it starts to fracture which makes it then release all of that energy, therefore creating smaller tremors, or aftershocks.

Aftershocks are smaller earthquakes that come after the main one and have a lower magnitude. If an earthquake does not have a lower magnitude than the one before, then the aftershock gets renamed as the main quake, and the first one gets renamed as the foreshock, however this is quite uncommon, and usually there is just a main quake, then a series of aftershocks. Aftershocks sometimes take down insecure buildings that had already been damaged by the main quake, and this causes more expenses for the country, so people fear aftershocks as much as the main quake because they can still also kill you.